Population dynamics
Population dynamics is investigated throughout the population of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at the Punta San Juan reserve.

Our goal is to understand the intra and inter-annual variation of resident populations of Humboldt penguins that live in the Punta San Juan reserve, and if there are changes in the seasonality of important processes that form part of their annual cycle, as are molting and mating.

The data for this study were collected through the direct census of individuals present on the beaches of the reserve, categorizing each individual according to sex and age group (eg. adults, juveniles and chicks). Sightings of animals marked individually with stainless steel flipper tags are also recorded to see survival rates amongst known individuals.

Data collected throughout the year, and at shorter intervals (daily) during the molting season (January-March), categorizing individuals according to the reproductive state and plumage (May to July and September to November). This is achieved by direct observation, using binoculars and telescopes.
Marco Cardeña
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